SAN CARLOS CITY
THE HISTORICAL METAMORPHOSIS OF SAN CARLOS CITY
Fragments of written history show that in 1856, the island of Negros as a politico-military province under Spain, was divided into two provinces, the West Negros under Iloilo and the East Negros under Cebu. The barrio of Nabingkalan under Calatrava was under the jurisdiction of Iloilo.
During the first years of the American jurisdiction of the Philippines, the economic and social phase of the activities of the people was gauged on the movements of the big landholders and Spaniards in the lowlands. In 1903, the political arena was a hot place; it is being the first taste of the Filipinos to elect their own leader. Since then, the following elections were always a sensational political drama. In 1912, when the sugar central was constructed, the economic life of the people was greatly enhanced. The political activities, however, was closely woven with that of Calatrava, until 1925, when Calatrava was organized into a municipality.
From 1903, to the last days of the administration of the Municipality of San Carlos, the following persons have served as presidents and mayors, has each contributed in one way or another to the progress of the town:
Agustin Ylagan (4 terms)
Domingo Medina (2 terms)
Juan P. Broce (2 terms)
Eugenio Antonio, Jr.
Juan P. Broce
Antonio Azcona, in occupied area
Anacleto Factoran, in free area
Eugenio Antonio, Jr.
Constancio Rabacal (2 terms)
Sofronio C. Carmona
The First World War encourages the people of San Carlos to produce more staple and sugar crops. After the armistice in 1917, the planters who produced more sugar had their wealth greatly increased because of the new price of sugar never before enjoyed by the planters. During the war, many sons of San Carlos volunteered to fight for Uncle Sam, but a few months later, were sent back home because of the Armistice.
The Second World War was partly fought in San Carlos. Barely one month after the surrender of Negros to the Japanese Imperial Forces, had guerrilla movement begun in San Carlos and Calatrava. As early as June15, 1942, guerilla bands under the leadership of Lt. Leonardo Marane and Lt. Alfredo Valdivia began operations against the enemy. Pitch battle were fought within the environs of the poblacion. In spite of the presence of Maj. Edward McClenahan, a US Army officer in the area of San Carlos, the guerilla bands were not organized. However, with the coming home of some USAFFE officers of San Carlos, the guerrilla was formally organized. Under USAFFE Capts. Catalino D. Rivera and Loreto Y. Apuhin, together with Lts. Florencio C. Yap and Andres L. Arrogante the bands of roving guerillas in San Carlos were consolidated under one command. The professionals inside the free area joined the movement. Noted among whom, were: Eufemio A. Parana and Paul G. Gores, lawyer; Dominador Cejalvo, engineer; Carlos M. Madrazo, chemist; Eugenio Antonio, Jr., labor leader and chemist; Pedro T. Algarme, college professor; and later, Oscar A. Quisumbing, Arturo A, Cruz, physicians and Lt. Fernando D. Estampador.
In the war fronts of Bataan and Mindanao, several sons of San Carlos made their supreme sacrifices. Among those who survived to tell the story that came home to continue the fight against the enemy, were: Capt. Epifanio D. Liberal, Capt. Dominador Justiniani, Capt. Porferio A. Villaflor, Lts. Teodulfo Limas, Crescencio C. Portuguez, Florencio C. Yap, Andres L. Arrogante, Nestorio L. Layumas, Federico Legaspina, Sgt. Simplicio Algarme and very few enlisted men.
In March, 1945, San Carlos saw action, when the local guerilla under the over-all command of Col. Ernesto S. Mata, attacked the Japanese garrison in the compound of San Carlos Milling Company and succeeded in driving away the enemy, at the cost of the life of Lt. Alfredo Valdivia.
Labor movement was accented by the organization of the Allied Workers Association of the Philippines, the San Carlos United Workers Association, the Philippines Land-Air-Sea Labor Union, and the defunct Anak sa Buhat. Since then, only one strike was registered, and that was in 1956.
By virtue of RA No. 2648, the Municipality of San Carlos was converted into the City of San Carlos on July 1, 1960. The City inherited from the Municipality numerous improvements hitherto unprecedented in the history of the town. The improvements were introduced by the last municipal administration under Mayor Carmona. The usual experience of a new city during the transition period is fraught with crisis. The new city of San Carlos excepted to this rule. The herculean effort exerted by Mayor Carmona in meeting the huge obligations of the city in the form of salaries of newly created offices and the implementation of WAPCO increases of the intermediate school teachers were easily overcome.
The Municipal Board is entirely Nacionlista. It is composed of the cream of the professionals and model citizens with spotless records. They are men dedicated to public service, without any thought of compensation, which the San Carlos City Charter does not provide, unlike other cities in the Philippines/
The following gentlemen composed the first Municipal Board of the new city:
ANTONIO M. AZCONA, Vice-Mayor and President, Planter, Sportsman
RODOLFO S. LAYUMAS, Lawyer, Sportsman
EUFEMIO A. PARANA, Lawyer, Soldier, Sportsman
JOSE L. YAP, Engineer, Businessman
LORETO Y. APUHIN, Lawyer, Soldier, Educator, Journalist
FILOMENO B. KYAMKO, Model Employee, Playwright, Dramatist
OSMUNDO V. GAVIOLA, Dentist, Sportsman
OSCAR A. QUISUMBING, Physician, Businessman, Sportsman
JULIO B. DELA ROSA, Farmer, Barrio Lieutenant
Under the administration with Mayor Sofronio C. Carmona at the helm, and the nine gentlemen of the Board, whose unselfishness and cooperation is without peer in the history of the town, and with the help of the Almighty, the City of San Carlos may yet become a Utopia, if only their successor in the generations to come will follow their footsteps.